Tables in HTML

In past tutorials we’ve looked at ways to present text, images and create links in HTML. In this tutorial we’ll look at how to create a simple table to use in your web projects.

What tables look like

This is a table. It has two rows.
It has two cells in each row. We’ll look at how to create this.

Table tag

The first thing we need to do to create a table is create a table tag. Tables in HTML are elements that need to have closing tags for each opened tag, so be careful. With the table tag, we’re just telling the browser that we’re going to be starting a table when we open it and ending a table when we close it.

   <!--We need to add more tags here to make our table work--!>

This code won’t display anything yet, we’ll need to specify the number of rows and cells (data) and add content to our cells to have a proper table. The text in the middle of our table tags is a comment. We’ll be looking at HTML comments in greater detail in our next HTML Basics tutorial.


Once we have our table tags, we’ll need to nest tags to specify the number of rows we want in our table. Luckily the tags are tr, for table row, and easy to remember.

      <!--We'll add cells here--!>
      <!--We'll add cells here--!>


Now we just need to add the cells into the rows of our tables and we’ll be ready to go. We’ll be nesting the table data tags inside the row tags in our table to create a working table.

      <td>Here's their first cell in the first row</td>
      <td>The second cell in the first row</td>
      <td>Here's their first cell in the second row</td>
      <td>The second cell in the second row</td>

Once we add the cells in, our table looks like this:

Here’s their first cell in the first row The second cell in the first row
Here’s their first cell in the second row The second cell in the second row

Common problems

Don’t forget that you’ll need to close each of the tags you use to create your table. The tags also have to be nested within each other in the right order. Data tags sit inside row tags which rest inside the table tags.

Have questions about tables in HTML? Ask in the comments below or find me on Twitter.

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Easy, Lazy SEO

Last Saturday I joined some incredibly talented speakers, dedicated organizers and lovely WordPressers for WordCamp Manchester. The event was hosted at Manchester Metropolitan University Business School, which is one of my favorite venues for medium sized conferences. I gave a talk on Easy, Lazy SEO.

For attendes who wanted information on blocking the referral spammer Semalt, I recommend Logorrhoea‘s how to blog post.

I’ve got to admit that this talk was a bit too basic for the WordCamp audience. I had planned for an audience of SEO newbies and was delighted to find a really intelligent audience that was well informed on SEO. I think I’m going to start bringing both my introductory level and intermediate level slides with me if I give this talk in the future. Luckily a well informed audience allowed for a really robust discussion session following the quick race through the slides.

Many thanks to organizer Jenny Wong, all the volunteers and the participants that made this event such a smashing success.

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Voice Acting

While I lived in Japan I was lucky enough to get to do some voice acting work for corporate projects, video games and odd jobs though Ten, a great company in Osaka. The scarcity of natural American accents in the area let me jump right into a really interesting and competitive field.

With the more flexible schedule that working with Young Rewired State offers, I was hoping to get back into a bit of voice acting. I got in touch with Matthew Cochrane who arranged for me to record a demo reel with his students at Access to Music, Birmingham. I really can’t say enough great things about the students I worked with. Their skill and professionalism was far beyond my expectations. I even got to record some sound samples for their music projects, so expect to see me excitedly posting some of their tracks in the near future.


I would love best to work with projects touching on technology, especially those in the West Midlands or in smaller tech centers but would be open to other interesting projects. If you’ve got anything you would like me to take a look at, email jessica(at) A short demo reel is available below to show range and to let everyone hear how strange demo reels sound.

My next stop in this journey is going to be to source a more up to date headshot for voice work. Luckily Birmingham has some of the most creative photographers I’ve ever come across. If anyone can make me look presentable, it’ll be someone here in Brum.

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New Role: Young Rewired State

Sorry for the radio silence, I’ve been in a bit of frenzy preparing to change roles. I’m now the head of Community for Young Rewired State, an organization which helps support under 19s teaching themselves to code through events, hacks and online community building.

Young Rewired State Logo

With my background in education and as a self taught (well, self teaching) programmer, this role seemed like an impossibly good match. I’m delighted and honored to be in a role where I’ll be working to support self taught learners. I think this is one of the few opportunities that could have pulled me away from my former role with Majestic SEO.

I’ve been working with YRS for two weeks now and have been lucky enough to have been involved in some great events, such as a BBC connected studio in Glasgow and a Buckingham Palace visit to see the Duke of York award some of our brightest young stars. Getting used to working remotely has been a bit of a challenge, such as setting firm boundaries between work and personal time but also gives me the flexibility to chase up projects that overlap with traditional working hours.

Young Rewired State runs a programs, contests, events and hacks intended to give young programmers a supported, social environment in which to learn and create. We’re always looking for mentors who want to pass along their skills and insights as well as young folks who want to make great things! If either of these sound like you, get in touch.

I’m really delighted to be working with YRS and look forward to seeing what new challenges crop up. But I’ll not be abandoning digital marketing entirely. I’ll be speaking at WordCamp Manchester on easy SEO fixes for WordPress and should be popping up now and again elsewhere.

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Ignite Liverpool

Last night I gave a short talk on imposter syndrome at Ignite Liverpool. They’ve got a really great group of volunteers, speakers and attendees and I can’t recommend enough that folks in the area make time for their quarterly events. I’ve included slides from my talk and a list of resources and recommended reading.

Images from Mourge File free stock images, Redditor Gabryelx created the Nyan pug and I’ve included the uncited meme image “I have no idea what I’m doing”. If anyone knows where who created this image, please do let me know.

Valarie Young’s advice on combating imposter syndrome comes from her 2010 Forbes interview.

The study first capturing the Dunning-Kreuger effect, “Unskilled and unaware of it: How difficulties in recognizing one’s own incompetence lead to inflated self-assessments.” is available through PyschNET.

I’ll be adding the video of this talk as soon as it’s made available through the Ignite Liverpool YouTube account.

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Ladies Who Code Birmingham

Monthly events aimed at programmers who identify as female are now being held in Birmingham. It doesn’t matter if you’re a professional developer or looking to learn to write your first line of code, Ladies Who Code Birmingham is open to all skill levels.

We’ll be supplying cake and good company, we’re looking for some brilliant women to provide the great ideas to make Ladies Who Code a valuable resource here in the West Midlands.


The next Ladies Who Code Birmingham event will be Monday the 19th of May from 6:30pm at the Innovation Birmingham Campus. We’ll be asking for short lightning talks from participants so if you have a great project, pitch or tool you want to share with us, we’re happy to give you the stage. Don’t worry if you’re shy, we’re not planning on bullying anyone into speaking. This is only our second meeting, so we’ll also be looking for direction on what kind of events you would like to see in the future. Further details available at

Have questions? Need directions? Want to request specific pastries? Drop me an email at jessica(at) or shout at me on Twitter.

Can’t attend? Let us know how we can make the event more accessible in the comments below.

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Transitioning into a Technical Role

On April 29 Innovation Birmingham hosted their first Women in Tech event. I was honored to have been asked to present and look forward to a successful series of similar events to follow. I have included my slides from my talk on moving into a technical role from a non-technical background below.

For anyone who had been interested in attending some of the events I had mentioned in my talk, I’ve listed these below:

Open Code
Ladies Who Code Birmingham
Silicon Canal
West Midlands Ruby User Group
Tech Wednesday
Hackfrence Brum

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Interview with

Yesterday I posted about’s crawler and their unusual choice not to have their crawlers identify themselves as web crawlers or obey robots.txt, causing heartaches for analytics loving webmasters across the web. Semalt’s manager Alex Andrianov reached out through twitter and offered to answer some of my questions via email. The exchange is included in whole below.

Hi, thanks for taking the time to chat with me in a bit more detail about Semalt. Happy to update my blog post with factual corrections you’re able to provide.You’ve mentioned on twitter that Semalt does not obey robots.txt, further saying that “can’t change it”. Could you explain in a bit more detail what keeps Semalt’s bots from identifying themselves as bots or obeying robots.txt? Is this a talent issue, where your developers haven’t been able to discover the processes to undertake this, or is this part of a business decision on Semalt’s part?Are there plans in the future to have Semalt’s bots identify themselves properly as crawlers and to obey robots.txt?

You also claimed that my comments at were incorrect, as I was not a Semalt client. Were there any specific factual errors that you would like to address?

Thanks again for taking the time to answer these,

Jessica Rose


Hello Jessica RoseThanks for your email.First of all I would like to bring apology on behalf of my company if our bots caused you some difficulties. I can assure you, all the visits on your website were accidental. At this moment our specialists are taking drastic actions to prevent these visits. Thank you for pointing to our service drawbacks. We appreciate your help and it is very important to us.

Our service has been launched quite recently and unfortunately there are still some bugs and shortcomings. Please, respect this fact. We are working hard trying to fix the existing errors and I hope soon our users won’t have any claims.

As you might notice, every user can manually remove their URLs from the Semalt database using Semalt Crawler. Furthermore, our Support center specialists are ready to come to the aid and remove URLs from the base once the website owner submits a request. We consider every single request and guarantee that every user will get a proper respond.

We realize this may bring some inconveniences, but unfortunately at the moment we can’t offer another way of solving this issue.

As for the comment posted on your blog, I believe it’s impossible to evaluate all the pros and cons unless you have the complete picture of the service. Probably once you try to use Semalt features you will change your mind.

Anyway, we thank you for your feedback, since we appreciate every opinion relating Semalt.

Sincerely yours,

Semalt LLC manager , Alex Andrianov


Thanks for the response, but would it be possible to have you address my specific questions more directly?1. Are you claiming that your bots’ failure to identify themselves as web crawlers is due to a technical failure?
2. Are you claiming that your bots not obeying robots.txt is due to a technical failure?
3. Do you have plans to make your bots identify themselves as web crawlers?
4. Do you have plans to have your bots comply with robots.txt?Jessie


Dear Jessica,I will try to give the most definite answers to your questions. As I mentioned before our service has recently appeared on the web which causes some technical unavailability. Today we upgrade the web scanning process and adjust our robots. Unfortunately sometimes Semalt bots visit random websites, but we do all our best to solve this problem in the shortest possible time.Thank you for your email and interest to service. Your opinion is very important to us.

Sincerely yours,

Semalt LLC manager, Alex Andrianov

I’m not sure that’s answering much. I’m really looking to find out:1. Will your crawlers be respecting robots.txt after your upgrade?
2. Will your crawlers be identifying themselves as web crawlers after your upgrade?Jessie

He hasn’t yet replied to this email, but responded to tweets on the subject:

What we learned from this exchange:

Nothing, really. There were some vague claims that the problems I’ve listed were “bugs” but no specific addressing of the problems of Semalt bots ignoring robots.txt or failing to properly identify themselves as web crawlers. Apparently several weeks of visits to sites across the web were “accidental”.

Why this is nonsense:

Given how easy creating robots.txt compliant crawlers are, failure of bots to identify themselves as web crawlers or obey robots.txt can only be viewed as a deliberate choice of the designer or gross incompetence. While my technical skills are also substandard, I’m confident that I would be able to put together a simple webcrawler that obeys robots.txt over the weekend (check in on Tuesday, I’ll be posting the results of my efforts). For a professional enterprise who sources data through crawling the web to claim following industry conventions is beyond their technical ability leaves me wondering if they’re fools or liars.

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What is

If you’re keeping track of your website’s traffic through Google Analytics, you’ve probably noticed referral visits from a website called in recent weeks. Semalt is a web crawler designed to gather data for Senmalt’s marketing platform. The visits showing up in your logs are automated programs interacting with your site.

The difference between and reputable crawlers

If you look through your Google Analytics referral data, you’ll notice that the other large web crawlers such as Googlebot, MJ12bot, Rogerbot and Bingbot don’t show up in your logs. Semalt’s crawlers showing up in your traffic logs is unusual because most bots identify themselves as web crawlers and will thus be excluded from your traffic data. This results in skewed traffic data, especially for smaller sites for whom vists make up a larger percentage of their traffic.

Semalt also doesn’t respect robot.txt (a easy way for webmasters to keep bots from their sites) instead asking that concerned webmasters seek them out and add themselves to a no-crawl list that Semalt maintains. I reached out to Semalt’s Alex Andrianov on twitter to ask if their crawlers were ignoring robots.txt. He confirmed that’s crawler doesn’t respect robots.txt and claimed that they were unable to have it do so.

Twitter exchange with Alex Andrianov of

How to stop from visiting your site

As Alex suggests, you can submit your site to Semalt to ask for removal from their crawl at their site though there’s no way to tell if they’ll act on this request. As I’m inclined to distrust crawlers that don’t respect robot.txt I’ve opted to block their access to my site through .htaccess as outlined by

Update 15/4/14: Semalt manager Alex Andrianov suggested that parts of this post may be factually incorrect as I failed to note I am not a Semalt customer. I would like to state that I am not a Semalt client but that I stand by the information listed here are true and welcome any factual corrections.


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Birmingham Open Code

From April the 8th there will be a weekly event for collaborative programming study sessions in Birmingham. We’ll be meeting in the Woodman Pub from 6 pm.

Birmingham Open Code is designed to provide a peer supported, mixed level learning environment. Programmers and aspiring programmers working in any language are welcome. The weekly schedule is designed to create a casual environment where learners can drop in for social learning as needed, without feeling the need to make every event. We’re looking to keep these study sessions as inclusive as possible. You’re welcome no matter your skill level, level of education, age, gender, race, sexual identity, or sexual orientation.

If you’re an established programmer bring your laptop and be ready to help out newbies while socializing with your peers. If you’ve never programmed before and want to start, bring some great questions to get you started in the right direction.

There are also a number of hands on workshops in a range of technologies and experience levels in the pipeline. These may be added as monthly events to supplement the Open Code study sessions. Currently workshops in introductory and advanced Python, technical writing and Ruby have been proposed. To lead your own workshop, get in touch at jessica(at)

The space is handicap accessible and close to both Birmingham’s Moor Street and New Street stations.

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